Category Archives: Spark

How to import spark.implicits._ in Spark 2.2: error “value toDS is not a member of org.apache.spark.rdd.RDD”

I wrote about how to import implicits in spark 1.6 more than 2 years ago. But things have changed in Spark 2.2: the first thing you need to do when coding in Spark 2.2 is to set up an SparkSession object. SparkSession is the entry point to programming Spark with DataSet and DataFrame.

Like Spark 1.6, spark.implicits are required to be able to use Spark’s API for DataSets and DataFrames in version 2.2. And like version 1.6, an instance of SparkContext is needed in Spark 2.2 before being able to import spark.implicits. Since each instance of SparkSession comes with and an instance of SparkContext associated with it, all you have to do is to create an object of SparkSession and you’re set.

I have seen other posts that mention bits and pieces of how to do it. Here I give you the full code that works just fine and you can tweek it based on your requirements:

import org.apache.spark.sql._

import org.apache.log4j._

object sparkSQLWithCaseClass {

case class Person (ID: Int, name: String)

def mapper(l: String): Person = {

val fields = l.split(‘,’)

val person: Person = Person(fields(0).toInt, fields(1))

return person

}

 

def main(args: Array[String]){

Logger.getLogger(“org”).setLevel(Level.ERROR)

val spark = SparkSession.builder.appName(“Spark SQL”).getOrCreate()

 

val lines = spark.sparkContext.textFile(“../../people.csv”)

val people = lines.map(mapper)

 

import spark.implicits._

val schemaPeople = people.toDS()

schemaPeople.printSchema()

schemaPeople.createOrReplaceTempView(“people”)

 

val t = spark.sql(“select * from people where age >= 13”)

val res = t.collect()

res.foreach(println)

spark.stop()

}

}

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Spark Error “java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Size exceeds Integer.MAX_VALUE” in Spark 1.6

RDDs are the building blocks of Spark and what make it so powerful: they are stored in memory for fast processing. RDDs are broken down into partitions (blocks) of data, a logical piece of distributed dataset.

The underlying abstraction for blocks in Spark is a ByteBuffer, which limits the size of the block to 2 GB.

In brief, this error means that the block size for the resulting RDD is larger than 2GB: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/SPARK-1476

One way to work around this issue increase application’s parallelism. We can define the default number of partitions in RDDs returned by join and reduceByKey, by adjusting

spark.default.parallelism

What this configuration parameter does is basically to define how many blocks of data our dataset, in this case RDD, is going to be divided into.

As you have probably realized by now, we would need to set spark.default.parallelism to a higher value when processing large datasets. This way we can make sure the size of data blocks do not exceed 2GB limitations.


Spark Error CoarseGrainedExecutorBackend Driver disassociated! Shutting down: Spark Memory & memoryOverhead

Another common error we saw in yarn application logs was this:

17/08/31 15:58:07 WARN CoarseGrainedExecutorBackend: An unknown (datanode-022:43969) driver disconnected.

17/08/31 15:58:07 ERROR CoarseGrainedExecutorBackend: Driver 10.1.1.111:43969 disassociated! Shutting down.

Googling this error suggests increasing spark.yarn.driver.memoryOverhead or spark.yarn.executor.memoryOverhead or both. That has apparently worked for a lot of people. Or at least those who were smart enough to understand how these properties work.

What you need to consider here is that memoryOverhead is allocated out of the total amount of memory available to driver or executor, which is controlled by spark.driver.memory & spark.executor.memory.

What this means is that if you’re increasing executor’s or driver’s memoryOverhead, double check if there is enough memory allocated to driver and executor or not. In our case, the user was allocating all the memory available to driver as memoryOverhead, which meant there was none left for other other driver operations:

spark-submit \
–queue default \
–verbose \
–master yarn-cluster \
–conf spark.shuffle.service.enabled=true \
–conf spark.shuffle.manager=sort \
–conf spark.executor.memory=8g \
–conf spark.dynamicAllocation.enabled=true \
–conf spark.dynamicAllocation.minExecutors=10 \
–conf spark.executor.cores=2 \
–conf spark.driver.memory=8g \
–conf spark.network.timeout=600s \
–conf spark.scheduler.executorTaskBlacklistTime=3600000 \
–conf spark.yarn.driver.memoryOverhead=8192 \
–conf spark.yarn.executor.memoryOverhead=8192 \

You can clearly see what I meant in above paragraph. Instead of doing this, user should have increased executor and driver memory according to increase in executor memory overhead:

spark-submit \
–queue default \
–verbose \
–master yarn-cluster \
–conf spark.shuffle.service.enabled=true \
–conf spark.shuffle.manager=sort \
–conf spark.executor.memory=16g \
–conf spark.dynamicAllocation.enabled=true \
–conf spark.dynamicAllocation.minExecutors=10 \
–conf spark.executor.cores=2 \
–conf spark.driver.memory=16g \
–conf spark.network.timeout=600s \
–conf spark.scheduler.executorTaskBlacklistTime=3600000 \
–conf spark.yarn.driver.memoryOverhead=8192 \
–conf spark.yarn.executor.memoryOverhead=8192 \

 


Spark Error: Failed to Send RPC to Datanode

This past week we had quite few issues with users not being able to run Spark jobs running in YARN Cluster mode. Particularly a team that was on tight schedule used to get errors like this all the time:

java.io.IOException: Failed to send RPC 8277242275361198650 to datanode-055: java.nio.channels.ClosedChannelException

Mostly accompanied by error messages like:

org.apache.spark.SparkException: Error sending message [message = Heartbeat(9,[Lscala.Tuple2;@e47ba81,BlockManagerId(9, datanode-50 , 43381))]

ERROR Executor: Exit as unable to send heartbeats to driver more than 60 times

These errors basically mean the connection between Spark driver and executors are broken, mainly because executor is killed. This could happen because of a number of reasons:

  1. We realized this happens a lot more often when our cluster is too busy and has hit maximum usage. What it means is that executors are accepted to DataNodes, but they fail to acquire enough memory on the datanode and therefore get killed.
  2. Metaspace attempts to grow beyond the executor(JVM) memory limits, resulting in loss of executors.The best way to stop this error from appearing is to set below properties when launching Spark-Shell or submitting application using spark-submit:spark.driver.extraJavaOptions = -XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=100M

    -XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=256m

    -XX:CompressedClassSpaceSize=256m

    spark.executor.extraJavaOptions = -XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=100M

    -XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=256m

    -XX:CompressedClassSpaceSize=256m

    Please note that depending on your project and code, you may need to increase the values mentioned above.

  3. Network is slow for whatever reason. In our case, this was caused by a change in DNS which resulted in turning off caching.This case could be fixed by adjusting spark.executor.heartbeatInterval and spark.network.timeout. Default values for these 2 parameters are 10s and 120s. You can adjust these 2 values based on how your network, the only point to consider here is that the later property, spark.network.timeout, should be greater than the first one.

If none of what mentioned above helps your situation, then it is something you need to take to your cluster’s administrator. There could be something wrong with the datanodes where executors are sent to that admins are not aware of.

Happy coding!


How to import org.apache.spark.sql.SQLContext.implicits in Spark 1.6: error “value toDF is not a member of org.apache.spark.rdd.RDD”

I am doing a mini project for my company using Spark/Scala and have been stuck with the error mentioned in the title for a couple of days. Googling that error suggested to import org.apache.spark.sql.SQLContext.implicits, and that’s what I did:

import org.apache.spark.SparkContext
import org.apache.spark.SparkContext._
import org.apache.spark.sql._
import org.apache.spark.sql.SQLContext
import org.apache.spark.sql.SQLContext.implicits

import org.apache.spark.SparkConf
object TestSQLContext {
[…..]
def main(args:Array[String]) {
[…..]
}
}

And that was the start of the problem: my application started to give a new error:

object SQLContext is not a member of package org.apache.spark.sql
[error] Note: class SQLContext exists, but it has no companion object.

The problem is, none of those online posts mention that we need to create an instance of org.apache.spark.sql.SQLContext before being able to use its members and methods. This is the right way to do it:

import org.apache.spark.SparkContext
import org.apache.spark.SparkContext._
import org.apache.spark.sql._
import org.apache.spark.SparkConf
object Hi {

case class DimC(ID:Int, Name:String, City:String, EffectiveFrom:Int, EffectiveTo:Int)

def main(args:Array[String]) {
val conf = new SparkConf().setAppName(“LoadDW”)
val sc = new SparkContext(conf)
val sqlContext= new org.apache.spark.sql.SQLContext(sc)
import sqlContext.implicits._

val fDimCustomer = sc.textFile(“DimCustomer.txt”)

var dimCustomer1 =   fDimCustomer.map(_.split(‘,’)).map(r=>DimC(r(0).toInt,r(1),r(2),r(3).toInt,r(4).toInt)).toDF

dimCustomer1.registerTempTable(“Cust_1”)

val customers = sqlContext.sql(“select * from Cust_1”)

customers.show()
}
}

Hope this post helps and please do not hesitate to ask your questions in comments section.

Cheers.